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Know your personal risk factors, both the ones you CAN control and the ones you CANNOT control.

Risk factors are conditions that increase your risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Some risk factors are called “non-modifiable” because you cannot change them.

Non-modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors include:


According to American Heart Association computations, about 80 percent of people who die from cardiovascular disease are 65 years and older. Age itself increases your risk of developing heart disease


Heart disease has long been considered to be primarily men’s disease. Although women tend to develop cardiovascular disease about 10 years later in life than men, the outcome for women is often worse.

Family history of heart disease

Your risk for developing heart disease increases if you have a relative who developed heart disease at an early age (before 55 years old). If your parents developed heart disease later in life, it may be age-related rather than genetic. While you can not change your genes, it is important to know your family medical history and share it with your doctor


African Americans are at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

Modifiable Risk Factors

Other risk factors are called ”modifiable” because they can be changed or treated. The modifiable risk factors include:

High blood pressure

BP Classification



Stage 1 HBP

Stag 2 HBP

Systolic BP mmHg

More than 120 and

120 - 139 or

140 - 159 or

More than 160 or

Diastolic BP mmHg

Less than 80

80 - 99

90 - 99

More than 100

For persons over age 50, systolic blood pressure is more important than diastolic blood pressure as a cardiovascular disease risk factor. Starting at 115/75 mmHg, cardiovascular disease risk doubles with each increment of 20/10 mmHg throughout the BP range. Those with systolic BP of 120–139 mmHg or diastolic BP of 80–89 mmHg should be considered prehypertensive and require health-promoting lifestyle modifications to prevent cardiovascular disease.


Smoking is the most preventable risk factor. Smokers have more than twice the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. On average, smoking costs 13 years to a male smoker and 14 years to a female smoker. Exposure to smoke (second hand smoking) increases the risk even for non smokers. Among adults over 18 years old in the US, about 20% are current smokers. Don’t’ smoke!


The cholesterol profile includes LDL (bad) cholesterol, HDL (good) cholesterol, triglycerides and total cholesterol.

LDL cholesterol (low density lipoprotein) contributes to the artery blockages (plaques). Most people should aim at an LDL cholesterol level of 100 mg/dL or lower. If you are a very high risk of developing cardiovascular disease, or if you have already had a heart attack, you may need to aim at an LDL level below 70 md/dL.

HDL cholesterol (high density lipoprotein) is a reverse-transport protein: it removes cholesterol from the arteries and takes it to the liver where it can be passed out of the body. High levels of HDL cholesterol lower your risk of developing cardiovascular disease. An HDL level of 60 mg/dL and over is considered excellent, providing you optimal protection.

Triglyceride is the most common type of fat in the body. Many people who have heart disease or diabetes have high triglyceride levels. Normal triglyceride level is less than 150 mg/dL.

Total cholesterol is a measure of LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and other lipids. The desirable level of total cholesterol is less than 200mg/dL.


Diabetes mellitus is defined as fasting blood glucose of greater than 125 mg/dL or more. Diabetes (elevated blood sugar) increases your risk for developing cardiovascular disease. There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is usually first diagnosed in children and young adults. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form and can develop at any age. If you have diabetes, no matter which type, it means that you have too much glucose in your blood, and it can lead to serious health issues. Diabetes and heart disease share similar risk factors (high cholesterol level, high blood pressure, obesity).

Pre-diabetes People with a fasting blood glucose level between 100 mg/dL and 125 mg/dL have an increased risk for developing Type 2 diabetes. If they do not make lifestyle modifications, they will likely develop diabetes within the next 10 years. Pre-diabetes is reversible. If the affected person loses weight, maintains a healthy diet and increases his or her physical activity, he or she may be able to prevent progression to diabetes.

Know your numbers. You can lower your risk for heart disease, which is the leading cause of death among middle-aged and older men and women over age 55. Visiting your doctor regularly and aiming for the following general goals can help reduce your risk:

  • Cholesterol — Less than 200 mg/dL
  • Triglycerides — Less than 150 mg/dL
  • Fasting Glucose — Less than 100 mg/dL
  • Blood Pressure — Less than 120/80 mmHg
  • Waist Circumference — Less than 35 inches for women and less than 40 inches for men
  • Body Mass Index — Less than 25 kg/m2
  • Exercise — At least 30 minutes most days
  • Diet & Nutrition —Fruits & Vegetables—5 daily servings o Whole Grains—6 daily servings
  • Oily Fish—2 servings per week
  • Fiber 25-30 grams per day
  • Fats & Oils — Use non-saturated fats such as canola or olive oil which contain 2 grams or less per tablespoon
  • Saturated Fat/Trans Fat — Less than 10% of total calories
  • Salt — Less than 6 grams (2,300 mg sodium) per day
  • Alcohol — For women, no more than one drink per day; for men, no more than two drinks per day
  • Tobacco — Zero tobacco products and zero exposure to secondhand smoke